Feedback Patterns of Excellent Teachers in Creating Thinking Culture in Classroom

  • Nursafra Mohd Zhaffar Academy of Islamic Contemporary Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Zetty Nurzuliana Rashed Faculty of Education, Selangor International Islamic University College, Malaysia


Although there is a growing interest in the culture of thinking in education, detailed information about classroom interaction that can incorporate thinking culture is lacking, particularly in the Malaysian context. Additionally, past studies do not focus on Islamic education. This study aimed to explore the feedback of excellent teachers in classroom interactions to incorporate a thinking culture. A qualitative case study approach was adopted on six excellent teachers (ETS) in Islamic Education using purposive sampling. Data were collected via teaching observation, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis. Thematic analysis revealed five themes that represented ETs’ feedback in classroom interactions to enhance thinking culture: give praise, give reprimand and criticism, stimulate information seeking, evaluate information, and ask for clarification. This study added value to the description of teachers’ feedback to create a thinking culture, especially in Islamic Education classrooms in Malaysia. The findings indicated that teachers need to increase open feedback, be willing to listen to students’ views, use praise and criticism selectively, and be a trustee of students for a democratic classroom to be realized. This study is expected to strengthen the effectiveness of teaching that incorporates a thinking culture.


Abdullah, Z. (2011). Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Pendekatan Berpusatkan Pelajar dalam Pendidikan Islam. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Badron, M. S. (2009). Zaman Ledakan Maklumat dan Kemajuan Pengetahuan Dalam Kerangka Pandangan Hidup Islam. AFKAR, 10, 83–108. Retrieved from
Beyer, B. K. (1997). Improving Student Thinking: A Comprehensive Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Costa, A. L. (1991). Teacher's behaviors that enable student thinking. In Developing Minds: A Resource Book For Teaching Thinking. Revised Edition Volume 1 (pp. 125–138). USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2014). Dispositions: Reframing Teaching and Learning. California: Corwin A Sage Company.
Cresswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, Inc.
Dahari, A. A., Suhid, A., & Fakhrudin, F. (2019). Implementation Critical Thinking in Teaching Islamic Education. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 8(4), 805–823.
Daradjat, Z. (2015). Pendidikan Agama dan Pembinaan Mental. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.
Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice. (pp. 9–26). W.H. Freeman and Company.
Haji Musa, N., & Yusoff, M.Z.M. (2019). Professional Values Influence on the Teachers’ Quality of Islamic Secondary School. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 7(2), 295-304. doi:10.26811/peuradeun.v7i2.415
Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: Dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449–455.
Hashim, R., Hussien, S., & Juperi, J. (2014). The Hikmah (Wisdom) Program: A Philosophical Inquiry For The Teaching Of Islamic Education In Malaysia. In S. Buang & P. Chew (Eds.), Muslim Education in the 21st Century. New York: Routledge.
Hilda, L., Lubis, R., & Daulae, T. (2020). The Development of Science Learning Device Based on Interconnected Integration in Increasing Critical and Creative Thinking Students'. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 8(1), 63-82. doi:10.26811/peuradeun.v8i1.341
Idris, S., & Tabrani ZA. (2017). Realitas Konsep Pendidikan Humanisme dalam Konteks Pendidikan Islam. Jurnal Edukasi, 3(1), 96–113.
Idris, S., Tabrani ZA, & Sulaiman, F. (2018). Critical Education Paradigm in the Perspective of Islamic Education. Advanced Science Letters, 24(11), 8226–8230.
Ismail, M. Z. (2014). Islam & Higher-order Thinking: An Overview. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit IKIM.
Jeremiah, K. (2012). Understanding approaches to teaching critical thinking in high school classrooms. Universiti Walden.
Kurniawan, B. (2016). Konsep targhib dan tarhib dalam perspektif Teori Belajar Behavioristik. An-Nidzam, 3(1), 101–106.
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Mohd Zhaffar, N., Hamzah, M. I., Abdul Razak, K., & Wan Abdullah, W. A. A. (2016). Ke Arah Guru Pendidikan Islam sebagai Pemikir Kritis. Sains Humanika, 8(3), 9–15.
Muhamad, N. (2020). Hubungan Kepercayaan Epistemologi Islam dengan Amalan Pengajaran Guru Pendidikan Islam Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Malaysia. Tinta Artikulasi Membina Ummah, 6(1), 22–40.
Oza, A., & Zaman, B. (2016). Edutainment dalam Mata Pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam. MUDARRISA: Jurnal Kajian Pendidikan Islam, 8(1), 117–144.
Pedler, M., Yeigh, T., & Hudson, S. (2020). The Teachers ’ Role in Student Engagement : A Review The Teachers ’ Role in Student Engagement : A Review. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 45(3).
Porter, L. (2014). Behavior in Schools: Theory and Practice for Teachers. England: Open University Press.
Raths, L. E., Wassermann, S., Jonas, A., & Rothstein, A. (1986). Teaching For Thinking: Theory, Strategies & Activities For The Classroom. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Reeve, J., & Shin, S. H. (2020). How teachers can support students’ agentic engagement. Theory into Practice, 59(2), 150–161.
Salmon, A. K. (2008). Promoting a culture of thinking in the young child. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(5), 457–461.
Sulaiman, S. (2015). Classroom Management and the Implications to Quality of Learning. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 3(3), 431-440.
Schartel, S. A. (2012). Giving feedback - An integral part of education. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 26(1), 77–87.
Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication, Inc.
Tricomi, E., & DePasque, S. (2016). The role of feedback in learning and motivation. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 19, 175–202.
Vellymalay, S. K. (2015). Guru Hebat: Penjana Transformasi Pendidikan Negara. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Walidin, W., Idris, S., & Tabrani ZA. (2015). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif & Grounded Theory. Banda Aceh: FTK Ar-Raniry Press.
Yamin, N. (2010). Questioning Academic Freedom in Islamic Education: Contemporary Relevance of Ijtihad in Islamic Education in Indonesia. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Pub.
How to Cite
MOHD ZHAFFAR, Nursafra; RASHED, Zetty Nurzuliana. Feedback Patterns of Excellent Teachers in Creating Thinking Culture in Classroom. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 2, p. 277-296, may 2022. ISSN 2443-2067. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 sep. 2022. doi: