Social Skills in Early Childhood and Primary Schools: A Systematic Review

  • Moh Salimi Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Muna Fauziah Institut Agama Islam Nahdlatul Ulama Kebumen, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aimed to summarize studies on early childhood and elementary school social skills and identify research gaps. The study used a systematic literature review method. A total of 50 articles on early childhood and elementary school social skills were published over the past ten years, from 2013 to November 2022. The 50 articles were the subject of the study. Nine thousand one hundred fifty samples comprise 1,958 early childhood and 7,192 elementary school students. The data were collected by studying documentation of several previous articles through database searches such as Google Scholar, scopus.com, ERIC, Sage Publication, Science Direct, and Taylor and Francis. The data analysis techniques were quantitative (statistical) and qualitative (descriptive). This study indicated that 50 articles had highlighted social skills in early childhood and elementary school that had successfully improved through the implementation of learning outside the classroom revealing the attitudes such as cooperation, assertion, responsibility, and self-control in students, and intellectual abilities, language, Education, computers, gender, and parental support. This study is helpful for educators as material for maximizing social skills. A systematic literature review of students' social skills factors is recommended for future researchers.

References

Abidin, N. F., & Salimi, M. (2021). Pursuing Historical Truth : The Discourse of History Teachers in Teaching the History of 30 September Movement in Indonesia. Education Research International, 2021, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2671682 Research
Ahn, E., & Kang, H. (2018). Introduction to Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 71(2), 103–112.
Aksoy, P. (2020). Metaphoric Perceptions on the Concept of “Social Skills” of Preschool Teachers. International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(5), 176–198. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.11
Albantan, M. A. R. (2021). Social Skills and Cyberbullying Behavior Among Students in Hail from the Perspective of Social Work. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(1), 96–113. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i1.5512
Alkinj, I., Pereira, A., & Coelho, P. (2022). The Effects of an Educational Program Based on Modeling and Social Stories on Improvements in the Social Skills of Students with Autism. Heliyon, 8(January), e09289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09289
Amin, M., Mahanal, S., Rohman, F., Malang, U. N., Sciences, N., Sciences, N., & Malang, U. N. (2022). Analyzing the Contribution of Critical Thinking Skills and Social Skills on Students’ Character by Applying Discovery Learning. International Journal of Education and Practice, 10(1), 42–53. https://doi.org/10.18488/61.v10i1.2907
Anderson-butcher, D., Martin, E., Paluta, L., & Gould, D. (2018). Patterns of Social Skill Development Over Time among Clusters of LiFE Sports Participants. Children and Youth Services Review, pp. 87, 17–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.01.044
Beheshtifar, M., & Norozy, T. (2013). Social Skills: A Factor to Employees’ Success. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(3), 74–79.
Bessa, C., Hastie, P., Araújo, R., & Mesquita, I. (2019). What do we Know about the Development of Personal and Social Skills within the Sport Education Model : A Systematic Review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 18, 812–829.
Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School Readiness and Self-Regulation: A Developmental Psychobiological Approach. Annu Rev Psychol, 3(6), 711–731. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015221.School
Blewitt, C., Hons, B. P. S., Fuller-tyszkiewicz, M., Nolan, A., Bergmeier, H., Vicary, D., Huang, T., & Mccabe, P. (2018). Social and Emotional Learning Associated with Universal Curriculum-Based Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Centers a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Network Open, 1(8), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5727
Breil, S. M., Mielke, I., Ahrens, H., Geldmacher, T., Sensmeier, J., Marschall, B., & Back, M. D. (2022). Predicting Actual Social Skill Expression from Personality and Skill Self-Concepts. Journal of Intelligence, 10(48), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030048
Broekhuizen, M. L., Mokrova, I. L., Burchinal, M. R., & Garrett-peters, P. T. (2016). Classroom Quality at Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children's Social Skills and Behavior Problems. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 212–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.01.005
Cervantes, P. E., Johnny L. Matson, H. L. Adams, Lindsey W. Williams, Rachel L. Goldin, & Jina Jang. (2013). Comparing Social Skill Profiles of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Versus Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Where the Deficits Lie. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(9), 1104–1110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.05.008
Côté, S. M., Larose, M., Geoffroy, M. C., Laurin, J., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., & Ouellet-morin, I. (2017). Testing the Impact of a Social Skill Training Versus Waiting List Control Group for the Reduction of Disruptive Behaviors and Stress among Preschool Children in Child Care: The Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Trial. BMC Psychology, 5(29), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-017-0197-9
Delgado-Rodríguez, M., & Sillero-Arenas, M. (2018). Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicina Intensiva, 42(7), 444–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medin.2017.10.003
Ergin, G., & Özkan, B. (2021). Examining the Effect of Meraki Mini Activities on Preschool Children’s Social Skills. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 10(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.37134/saecj.vol10.1.3.2021
Esen, H. T., Eraslan, M., Altınkök, M., Eravşar, H., Demir, B., Özküçük, S., & Şeran, B. (2021). The Validity and Reliability Study of the Basic Motor Movement, Social Skill Observation, and Evaluation Scale for Basic Movement Education. SAGE Open, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211031897
Fajri, I., Budimansyah, D., & Komalasari, K. (2022). The Indonesian Journal of the Social Sciences Digital Citizenship In Civic Education Learning : A Systematic Literature Review. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 10(3), 837–858.
Fernández-Leyva, C., Tomé-Fernández, M., & Ortiz-Marcos, J. M. (2021). Nationality as an Influential Variable with Regard to the Social Skills and Academic Success of Immigrant Students. Education Sciences, 11(605), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100605
Frey, N., Fisher, D., & Smith, D. (2019). All Learning is Social and Emotional: Helping Students Develop Essential Skills for the Classroom and Beyond. ACSD.
Gamst-Klaussen, T., Rasmussen, L. M. P., Svartdal, F., & Strømgren, B. (2016). Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 60(1), 20–31.
Gholamali, M., Afzali, L., & Borhanzadeh, S. (2011). The Effect of Cooperative Learning on the Social Skills of First-Grade Elementary School Girls. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1802–1805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.006
Gİrlİ, A. (2007). An Examination of the Relationships Between the Social Skill Levels, Self-Concepts, and Aggressive Behavior of Students with Special Needs in the Process of Inclusion Education. Çukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 42(1), 23–38.
GOBENA, G. A. (2020). Problems of Social Skills in Early Childhood Education Program in Ethiopia. International Online Journal of Primary Education, 9(2), 156–170.
Grassini, S., & Laumann, K. (2020). Questionnaire Measures and Physiological Correlates of Presence : A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(349), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00349
Gresham, F., Elliott, S., Metallo, S., Byrd, S., Wilson, E., Erickson, M., Cassidy, K., & Altman, R. (2018). Psychometric Fundamentals of the Social Skills Improvement System: Social – Emotional Learning Edition Rating Forms. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 00(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508418808598
Hinkley, T., Brown, H., Carson, V., & Teychenne, M. (2018). Cross-Sectional Associations of Screen Time and Outdoor Play with Social Skills in Preschool Children. PLoS ONE, 13(4), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193700
Horace, H. S., Wong, S. W. L., Chan, D. F. Y., Byrne, J., Li, C., Yuan, V. S. N., Lau, K. S. Y., & Wong, J. Y. W. (2018). Enhance Emotional and Social Adaptation Skills for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Virtual Reality Enabled Approach. Computers & Education, pp. 117, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.09.010
Huang, Y., Chung, C., Ou, H., & Tzang, R. (2015). Treatment Effects of Combining Social Skill Training and Parent Training in Taiwanese Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 114(3), 260–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2012.10.019
Idawati, D., Masitoh, S., Bachri, B. S., Pendidikan, T., Surabaya, U. N., Pendidikan, T., & Surabaya, U. N. (2020). Application of Learning Mobility Orientation on Social Skill of Blind Children. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(1), 196–204. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v9n1p196
Ikhsan, M. H., & Giwangsa, S. F. (2019). The Importance of Multicultural Education in Indonesia. Journal of Teaching and Learning in Elementary Education (JTLEE), 2(1), 60–63. https://doi.org/10.33578/jtlee.v2i1.6665
Jung, Y., Park, S., Ph, D., Baik, Y., Ph, D., Kim, K., Ph, D., Shin, M., Ph, D., Lee, J., Ph, D., Kim, M. K., Kim, B., & Ph, D. (2014). Effects of Art & Culture Education on Behavior and Social Skill in Children: A Preliminary Study. J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 25(4), 203–208. https://doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.2014.25.4.203
Kalyoncu, R. (2020). Evaluation of Social Skills of Visual Arts Teacher Candidates According to Personality Traits. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(3), 554–574. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v
Kitchenham, B. (2021). Procedures for Performing Systematic Reviews. Keele, UK, Keele University, 33(2004), 1–26.
Kurniawan, A., & Idris, J. (2023). The Indonesian Journal of the Social Sciences The Capability of Humanskill of the Madrasah Principal Leadership in Managing Human Resources at Senior High School in West Aceh. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 11(1), 323–344.
Lee, M., & Lee, Y.-M. (2015). Effects of a Social Skills Training Program on Problem Behaviors, Social Skills, and Peer Relationships in Children Using a Community Child Center at Vulnerable Area. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 24(3), 156–167.
Loukatari, P., Matsouka, O., Papadimitriou, K., Nani, S., & Grammatikopoulos, V. (2019). The Effect of a Structured Playfulness Program on Social Skills in Kindergarten Children. International Journal of Instruction, 12(3), 237–252. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12315a
M. Flynna, R., A. Rickerb, A., Dolezal, C., Kunind, M., & A. Mellins, C. (2019). Residential Summer Camp for Youth with Special Needs: A Longitudinal Approach to Investigating Differences in Social Skills. Children and Youth Services Review, pp. 96, 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.10.036
Maksum, A. (2021). Path Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Skills, Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Ability on Social Studies Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 613–628.
Maleki, M., Mardani, A., Chehrzad, M. M., & Dianatinasab, M. (2019). Social Skills in Children at Home and in Preschool. Behavioral Sciences, 9(74), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9070074
Masadis, G., Filippou, F., Derri, V., Mavridis, G., & Rokka, S. (2019). Traditional Dances as a Means of Teaching Social Skills to Elementary. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 511–520.
Merrell, K., & Gimpel, G. A. (2014). Social Skills of Children and Adolescents. Psychology Press.
Mpella, M., Evaggelinou, C., Koidou, E., & Tsigilis, N. (2019). The Effects of a Theatrical Play Programme on Social Skills Development for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. International Journal of Special Education, 33(4), 828–845.
Murano, D., & Sawyer, J. E. (2020). A Meta-Analytic Review of Preschool Social and Emotional Learning Interventions. Review of Educational Research, XX(X), pp. 1–37. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654320914743
Okajima, J., Kato, N., Nakamura, M., & Otani, R. (2021). A Pilot Study of Combining Social Skills Training and Parenting Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their Parents in Japan. Brain and Development, 43(8), 815–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2021.04.007
Oladimeji, O. O. (2022). Effects of Graphic Organizers and Socio-Economic Status on the Acquisition of Social Skills among Pupils with Intellectual Disability in Ibadan. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counseling, 11(1), 10–18.
Özbey, S., & Gozeler, M. K. (2020). A Study on the Effect of the Social Skills Education on the Academic Self Respect and Problem-Solving Skills of the Preschool Children. International E-Journal of Educational Studies (IEJES), 4(8), 176–189. https://doi.org/10.31458/iejes.727590
Ozyurek, A., Ozkan, I., Begde, Z., & Yavuz, N. F. (2015). Effects of Physical Training on Social Skill Levels of Preschool Children. Journal of Sports Science, 3, 282–289. https://doi.org/10.17265/2332-7839/2015.06.003
Pasiali, V., & Clark, C. (2018). Evaluation of a Music Therapy Social Skills Development Program for Youth with Limited Resources. Journal of Music Therapy, 00(00), 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thy007
Pekdoğan, S. (2016). Investigation of the Effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the Social Skills Development of 5-6 Year-old Children. Education and Science, 41(183), 305–318. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2016.4618
Phung, J. N., & Goldberg, W. A. (2021). Mixed Martial Arts Training Improves Social Skills and Lessens Problem Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 83(March), 101758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2021.101758
Pierce, S., Schindler, T. R., Anderson-Butcher, D., Amorose, A., & Wade-Mdivanian, R. (2022). Social Skill Transfer from a Sport-Based Positive Youth Development Program to the School Setting. Sport Social Work Journal, pp. 1, 78–95.
Polat, Ö., Sezer, T., & Atış-Akyol, N. (2022). Collaborative Learning with Mind Mapping in the Development of Social Skills of Children. Participatory Educational Research (PER), 9(1), 463–480. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.22.25.9.1
Prakhunhungsit, S., & Arunyanart, W. (2019). Social Skill Level in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Royal Thai Army Medical Journal, 72(4), 247–253.
Radley, K. C., Handley, R. D. O., Ness, E. J., Ford, W. B., Battaglia, A. A., Mchugh, M. B., & Mclemore, C. E. (2014). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders Promoting Social Skill use and Generalization in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(6), 669–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.03.012
Rahman, M. S. (2017). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Language "Testing and Assessment" Research: A Literature Review. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v6n1p102
Riggio, R. E., & Zimmerman, J. (1991). Social Skills and Interpersonal Relationships: Influences on Social Support and Support Seeking. Advances in Personal Relationships, pp. 2, 133–155.
Robinson, J. W. L., Kerry, R. S. E., & Skuse, W. M. D. (2018). A Systematic Review of Group Social Skills Interventions, and Meta-analysis of Outcomes, for Children with High Functioning ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(7), 2293–2307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3485-1
Rusilowati, U., & Wahyudi, W. (2020). The Significance of Educator Certification in Developing Pedagogy, Personality, Social and Professional Competencies. 2nd Social and Humaniora Research Symposium (SoRes, 2019), 409, 446–451.
Rutland, A., & Killen, M. (2015). A Developmental Science Approach to Reducing Prejudice and Social Exclusion: Intergroup Processes, Social‐Cognitive Development, and Moral Reasoning. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), 121–154.
Salimi, M. (2018). Students’ Perspective on Geography Materials and Learning: A Study on the Primary School Teacher Education. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, pp. 145, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/145/1/012031
Salimi, M., Dardiri, A., & Sujarwo. (2021). The Profile of Students’ Social Skills of Bengawan Solo Elementary Nature School. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 211–226. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.211
Sariyatun, Suryani, N., Sutimin, L. A., Abidin, N. F., & Akmal, A. (2021). The Effect of Digital Learning Material on Students’ Social Skills in Social Studies Learning. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 417–432. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14324a
Scassellati, B., Boccanfuso, L., Huang, C., Mademtzi, M., Qin, M., Salomons, N., Ventola, P., & Shic, F. (2018). Improving Social Skills in Children with ASD using a Long-Term, in-Home Social Robot. Science Robotics, 3(7544), 1–9.
Schoop-kasteler, N. (2022). Staff-Perceived Social Status and Social Skills of Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Special Needs Schools. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 3, 100150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2022.100150
Schrepp, M., & Thomaschewski, J. (2019). Design and Validation of a Framework for the Creation of User Experience Questionnaires. International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence, 5(7), 88–95. https://doi.org/10.9781/ijimai.2019.06.006
Şener, N. (2021). The Relationship Between Primary School Students’ Social Skills and Attitudes towards Social Studies Course and Their Academic Achievement. Education Quarterly Reviews, 4(2), 600–610. https://doi.org/10.31014/aior.1993.04.02.305
Silveira-zaldivar, T., Özerk, G., & Özerk, K. (2021). Developing Social Skills and Social Competence in Children with Autism. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 13(3), 341–363. https://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2021.195
Statistics, U. I. for. (2020). School enrollment, primary (% net) - Indonesia. uis.unesco.org. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR
Supriyanta, E. Y., Mustadi, A., Wangid, M. N., & Suhardi. (2019). Sociocultural-Based Reflective Picture Storybook: Urgency in Social Skill Development. Advances in Social Science, Education, and Humanities Research, 326, 162–166. https://doi.org/10.2991/iccie-18.2019.29
Tamagni, A. L., & Wilson, A. M. (2020). Discipline Policies and Preschool Special Education Students’ Personal – Social Skills. Journal of Educational Research & Practice, 10(1), 41–54. https://doi.org/10.5590/JERAP.2020.10.1.03
Tersi, M. (2020). Improving Social Skills through Structured Playfulness Program in Preschool Children. International Journal of Instruction, 13(3), 259–274.
Turner, D. T., Mcglanaghy, E., Cuijpers, P., Gaag, M. Van Der, Karyotaki, E., & Macbeth, A. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of Social Skills Training and Related Interventions for Psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbx146
Umphrey, L. R., & Sherblom, J. C. (2014). The Relationship of Hope to Self-Compassion, Relational Social Skill, Communication Apprehension, and Life Satisfaction. International Journal of Wellbeing, 4(2), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v4i2.1
Uzun, H. (2022). Do Fathers Effects the Social Skills of Preschool Children: An Experimental Study Gülen Baran. Participatory Educational Research (PER), 9(5), 222–242. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.22.112.9.5
Wymbs, N. F., Nebel, M. B., Ewen, J. B., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2021). Altered Inferior Parietal Functional Connectivity is Correlated with Praxis and Social Skill Performance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cerebral Cortex, 31, 2639–2652. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa380
祖燕飞ꎬ, 杜亚松, ꎬ周颖群, ꎬ樊宁, ꎬ朱书仪, ꎬ曹阳, ꎬ江文庆, & ꎬ徐光兴. (2022). 社交技能训练对自闭症谱系障碍患儿母亲 疾病不确定感干预效果研究. Chin J Sch Health, 43(8), 1249–1253.
Published
2023-05-30
How to Cite
SALIMI, Moh; FAUZIAH, Muna. Social Skills in Early Childhood and Primary Schools: A Systematic Review. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 2, p. 441-474, may 2023. ISSN 2443-2067. Available at: <http://journal.scadindependent.org/index.php/jipeuradeun/article/view/930>. Date accessed: 20 july 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.26811/peuradeun.v11i2.930.