Virtual Learning and Memory Dissonance

  • Nyak Mutia Ismail Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Indonesia
  • Sabrina Sabrina Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aimed to find out declarative memory recalls during online classes. Using a qualitative approach, the instruments used were simple and difficult word-sets. The data were collected through Zoom and WhatsApp platforms and later analyzed using interactive analysis. The results revealed two dissonances encountered: Informational Loss and Built-Up Dissonance. Initially, in the simple-word set, the majority of the students encountered Informational Loss 74 times (after 30 seconds) increasing to 97 times (after 30 minutes). In difficult word sets, it occurred 144 times, increasing to 154 times within identical spans. Regarding Built-Up Dissonance, it occurred 19 times (after 30 seconds), decreasing to 13 times (after 30 minutes) in simple word sets, and 27 times (after 30 seconds), increasing to 30 times (after 30 minutes) in difficult word sets. Surprisingly, it was found that in the recall test, linguistic buffering was generally employed instead of visual buffering. This finding helps teachers understand that virtual learning prompts need to be accompanied by activities involving procedural memory to minimize dissonances.

References

Appana, S. (2008). A Review of Benefits and Limitations of Online Learning in the Context of the Student, the Instructor and the Tenured Faculty. International Journal on E-Learning, 7(1), 5-22. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/22909/
Arkorful, V., & Abaidoo, N. (2014). The Role of e-Learning, the Advantages and Disadvantages of its Adoption in Higher Education. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(12), 397-410. https://tinyurl.com/4y6kxfje.
Bali, S. & Liu, M. (2018). Students’ Perceptions Toward Online Learning and Face-to-Face Learning Courses. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1108(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1108/1/012094.
Cherney, I. (2008). The Effects of Active Learning on Students’ Memories for Course Content. Active Learning in Higher Education. 9(2), 152–171. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787408090841.
Craik, F. & Lockhart, R. (1972). Levels of Processing: A Framework for Memory Research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11(6), 671-683. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(72)80001-X.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design Choosing Among Five Approaches. SAGE.
Cropley, A. J. (2021). Qualitative Research Methods: A Practice-Oriented Introduction for Students of Psychology and Education. Zinatne Publisher.
Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239520934018.
Dhull, I., & Shaksi, M. S. (2017). Online Learning. International Education & Research Journal, 3(8), 32-34. https://tinyurl.com/mw5ht633.
Efriana, L. (2021). Problems of Online Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic in EFL Classroom and the Solution. JELITA, 2(1), 38–47. https://tinyurl.com/2cn56vhk.
Gillund, G. (2012). Episodic Memory. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior. 68-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375000-6.00152-X.
Giray, L., Gumalin, D., Jacob, J., & Villacorta, K. (2022). Exploring the Online Learning Experience of Filipino College Students During Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 10(1), 227-250. https://doi.org/10.26811/peuradeun.v10i1.691
Hillen, R., Günther, T., Kohlen, C., Eckers, C., Van Ermingen-Marbach, & M., Sass, K., Scharke, W., Vollmar, J., Radach, R., & Heim, S. (2013). Identifying Brain Systems for Gaze Orienting During Reading: fMRI Investigation of the Landolt Paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00384.
Hirt, E. R. (1990). Do I See Only what I Expect? Evidence for an Expectancy-Guided Retrieval Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 58(6), 937–951. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.6.937.
Hubackova, S. (2015). History and Perspectives of E-Learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 191, 1187-1190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.594.
Ismail, N. M., & Fata, I. A. (2021). Improving Reading TOEFL Score Through Note-Taking Strategy. Al-Ta’lim Journal, 28(1), 45–54.
Jaligama, V. & Liarokapis, F. (2011). An Online Virtual Learning Environment for Higher Education. Proceedings - 2011 3rd International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, VS-Games 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/VS-GAMES.2011.44.
Klemm, W. (2007). What Good is Learning if You Need to Remember it? The Journal of Effective Teaching, 7(1), 61–73.
Mccomas, W. (2014). Cognitive Dissonance. In William, M. (Ed.), The Language of Science Education, 16–47. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-497-0_14.
Meşe, E. & Sevilen, Ç. (2021). Factors Influencing EFL Students’ Motivation in Online Learning: A Qualitative Case Study. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 4(1), 11-22. https://doi.org/10.31681/jetol.817680.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage Publications.
Moorhouse, B. (2020). Adaptations to a Face-to-Face Initial Teacher Education Course ‘forced” Online due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 609-611. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2020.1755205.
Muthuprasad, T., Aiswarya, S., Aditya, KS., Jha, GK. (2021) Students’ Perception and Preference for Online Education in India During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Social Science Humanities Open, 3(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100101.
Namaziandost, E. & Ziafar, M. (2020). The Capacity of Human Memory: Is there any Limit to Human Memory? Journal of Research on English and Language Learning, 1(2), 69-72. http://doi.org/10.33474/j-reall.v1i2.6432.
Nambiar, D. (2020). The Impact of Online Learning During COVID-19: Students’ and Teachers’ Perspective. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 8(2), 783–793. https://ijip.in/pdf-viewer/?id=23304.
Peterson, L., & Peterson, M. J. (1959). Short-Term Retention of Individual Verbal Items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58(3), 193–198. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0049234.
Purwadi, W. N. E., Wahyudi, A., Supriyanto, A., Muyana, S., Rohmadheny, P. S., Kurniawan, S. J. (2021). Student Perceptions of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: A Study of Phenomenology. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(3), 1515–1528. https://tinyurl.com/5yhdncc5.
Rasmitadila, R., Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan, A.R.S. (2020). The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: A Case Study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies. 7(2), 23-35. http://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/388.
Rahmat, P.S. (2021). Students’ and Teachers’ Perception of the Implementation of E-Learning: Indonesian Cases. Indonesia Journal of Learning and Instruction, 4(1), 67–79. https://doi.org/10.25134/ijli.v4i1.4346.
Riedel, W. & Blokland, A. (2015). Declarative Memory. In James, E. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 228, 215-236. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16522-6_7.
Rodriguez, D. & Strange, D. (2014). Dissonance-Induced False Memories: Evidence from a Free-Choice Paradigm. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26(5), 571-579. https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2014.925459.
Seghier, M. L., Maurer. U., & Xue, G. (2014). What Makes Written Words so Special to the Brain? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1-3. http://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00634.
Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74(11), 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093759
Steffens, M. C., von Stupnagel, R., & Schult, J. C. (2015). Memory Recall After “Learning-by-Doing” and “Learning-by-Viewing”: Boundary Conditions of an Enactment Benefit. In EEG/ERP Analysis, N. Kamel, A S. Malik (Eds). 18. CRC Publisher. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17605-11.
Sweller, J. & Van Merrienboer, J. J. G. & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, 10. 251-296. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022193728205.
Wang, Y. (2003). On Cognitive Informatics. Brain and Mind, 4(2), 151–167. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025401527570
Widarti, H., Hakim, M., & Rokhim, D. (2022). The Development of a Virtual Laboratory on Qualitative Chemical Practicum Analysis. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 10(3), 783-802. https://doi.org/10.26811/peuradeun.v10i3.760
Xhaferi, G. & Xhaferi, B. (2020). Online Learning Benefits and Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Students’ Perspective from SEEU. SEEU Review, 15(1). 86-103. https://doi.org/10.2478/seeur-2020-0006.
Yee, E., Jones, M. & McRae, K. (2017). Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience: Semantic memory. Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119170174.epcn309.
Yuzulia, I. (2021). The Challenges of Online Learning During Pandemic: Students’ Voice. Wanastra: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra, 13(1), 8-12. https://doi.org/10.31294/w.v13i1.9759.
Zboun, J. S. & Farah, M. (2021). Students’ Perspectives of Online Language Learning During Corona Pandemic: Benefits and Challenges. Indonesian EFL Journal, 7(1), 55-68. https://doi.org/10.25134/ieflj.v7i1.3986.
Published
2023-09-30
How to Cite
ISMAIL, Nyak Mutia; SABRINA, Sabrina. Virtual Learning and Memory Dissonance. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. 925-948, sep. 2023. ISSN 2443-2067. Available at: <https://journal.scadindependent.org/index.php/jipeuradeun/article/view/904>. Date accessed: 18 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.26811/peuradeun.v11i3.904.